Background: Sciaenidae is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan, both in production and economic value. It is also significant as the main targeted diet of Chinese white dolphins, especially genus Johnius, which is primarily found in central-western Taiwan coastal waters. Even though an abundance of Johnius occurrence has been reported (Mozambique, Australia, Taiwan, Korea, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Pakistan, Vietnam, and China) in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and the Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF), there are no specific datasets which properly document the regional distribution of this genus, especially in Taiwanese waters. Thus, this paper describes a dataset of the genus Johnius occurrences in waters on the central-western coast of Taiwan. The data collection for the present study was conducted from 2009 until 2020 and comprised 135 sampling efforts. All fish specimens were collected by trawling at Miaoli, Changhwa, and Yunlin counties, Taiwan, and were brought back to the lab for identification, individual number count, and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in the Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw) and published in GBIF (https://www.gbif.org). This dataset contains six Johnius species and 2,589 samples, making it comprehensive Johnius fish fauna and spatial distributional data on the coastal habitat in central western Taiwanese waters.
New information: This dataset contains 135 occurrence records of Johnius species (Sciaenidae) with 2,589 samples, making it the most extensive public dataset of Johnius distribution records in Taiwan. Publication of this dataset to the TaiBIF and GBIF dataset platform demonstrated that the number of Johnius spatial and temporal records in Taiwan waters is influenced by the topographical structure of the Changyun Rise (CYR) in combination with the cold current of the China Coastal water and the warm currents of the Kuroshio and the South China Sea on the central western coast of Taiwan. The data serve as the foundation for understanding the biogeography and Johnius species ecology in Taiwan's coastal waters which present a 2oC water temperature difference split at the CYR (Jan et al. 2006, Jan et al. 2010).
The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 116 records.
This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.
The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.
How to cite
Please be aware, this is an old version of the dataset. Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Hanafi N, Lai C, Yang M, Chang C, Chen M (2023): A trawling collected dataset of Johnius species in central western Taiwanese coastal waters. v1.10. Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF). Dataset/Occurrence. https://ipt.taibif.tw/resource?r=hafizhanafi&v=1.10
Researchers should respect the following rights statement:
The publisher and rights holder of this work is Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 License.
This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 9962b976-7eab-452f-acd5-3f772cc0ab25. Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility.
croacker; abundance; Chang-yun Rise; distribution; 2 C water temperature; Sampling; record; individual count; locality; species
- Metadata Provider
- Metadata Provider
Description: We downloaded the Landsat8 satellite image on 18 September 2022 and drew the investigation scope by using the ArcGIS 10.7 software. Our survey covered central western areas of Taiwan island, such as inshore and offshore coastal waters. Coordinates: 21.93N, 120.59E and 25.23N, 121.74E Latitude; 24.04N, 120.16E and 23.79N, 121.67E Longitude.
|Bounding Coordinates||South West [21.535, 119.059], North East [26.412, 122.278]|
Six species of Johnius were recorded in the dataset based on site collection and Johnius species composition, namely Bearded croaker, Johnius amblycephalus, Belanger's croaker, J. belangerii, Sharpnose hammer croaker, J. borneensis, croaker, J. distinctus, Taiwan's croaker, J. taiwanensis, and Trewavas croaker, J. trewavasae. Only one sole Johnius species, J. grypotus, described by Yu and Shen's (1989) occurrences in Keelung, northern Taiwan, and resurrected by Sasaki (1990), was not found in this study. The most abundance species in the dataset were J. belangerii, J. distinctus and J. taiwanensis (23.2%, 29.7% and 30.4%). A photograph of sample material of Johnius species was cited by Hanafi et al. (2023). Comparison data with Shao et al.’s (2012) collection sample are also provided, as comprehensive information on Johnius spatial distribution stretching from northern to southern western Taiwanese coastal waters was integrated into the present study. A finding of the present study was the occurrence of J. trewavasae in Miaoli and Changhwa, which Shao et al. (2012) did not collect in their sampling survey. In addition, the collection data did not acquire any J. grypotus samples in Taiwanese coastal waters during the sampling survey series.
|Species||Johnius amblycephalus (鈍頭叫姑魚), Johnius belangerii (皮氏叫姑魚), Johnius borneensis (婆羅洲叫姑魚), Johnius distinctus (鱗鰭叫姑魚), Johnius taiwanensis (臺灣叫姑魚), Johnius trewavasae (屈氏叫姑魚)|
|Start Date / End Date||2009-07-29 / 2020-12-20|
Johnius are short migratory coastal species that travel less than 100-200 meters between estuaries and neritic water during their life cycle (Mok et al. 2009). Fricke et al. (2023) identified 35 legitimate Johnius species found in the Indo-West Pacific area, and classified them into two subgenera: Johnius (Johnius) and Johnius (Johnieops), the latter distinguished by a row of larger teeth on the lower jaw (Lal Mohan 1975). Among the Indo-West Pacific Sciaenidae, Johnius is the biggest and most taxonomically perplexing genus. Moreover, Johnius has remarkable diversity and is a global species, the monophyly of which has been established (Trewavas 1977, Lo et al. 2017, Lo et al. 2015). In Taiwan and Southeast Asia particularly, several studies have been conducted on the reproduction ecology and biological organism of Johnius (Lin et al. 2007, Zhang et al. 2019, Mok et al. 2009), owing to the significant accessibility of the dispersal and migration between spawning sites. Nonetheless, understanding of their abundance, diversity, and ecological function is still limited in this region.
|Title||A trawling collected dataset of Johnius (Family: Sciaenidae) species in central western Taiwanese coastal waters.|
|Identifier||MOST 107-2119-M-110-001, MOST 107-2611-M-110-024, MOST 108-2621-M-110-003, MOST 108-2611-M-110-005, MOST 109-2611-M-110-006, MOST 109-2621-M-110-002, MOST 110-2621-M-110-001; MOST 111-2611-M-110-006; MOST 111-2621-M-110-002|
|Funding||National Science and Technology Council|
|Study Area Description||Recognizing the gap, this study initiative and extensive to collect the croaker specimens focusing on the occurrences of Johnius species in order to understand their distribution and abundance in western coastal Taiwan. This project ran from 2009 until 2020 and collected an abundance of samples at several sites (Miaoli, Changhwa, and Yunlin) along the coastline of western Taiwan. In addition to the occurrence reports, this study aimed to develop a database of Johnius profiles in central western Taiwan by identifying each individual fish using the morphological method to determine the distribution pattern in the Taiwan region. Thus, to encourage continuous reports of the occurrence pattern, we built up the distributional pattern in our database.|
|Design Description||The purpose of preparing the current dataset was to publicly open the data for advancement, especially in the scientific and conservation communities. The data of genus Johnius Taiwan have allowed a basic understanding of the biogeography of the distribution pattern of the Johnius species in Taiwan and some ecological factors that influence their distribution and migratory patterns in the waters surrounding Taiwan.|
The personnel involved in the project:
The sampling design for collecting bottom trawl harvest from coastal waters around central western Taiwan is shown. The abbreviations of locality names of the sampling sites are outlined below. Several series of extensive monthly samples collected from Miaoli, Changhwa, and Yunlin were analyzed starting in 2009, followed by the Yunlin collection from 2012-2016, and Miaoli fish landing ports in north-western Taiwan waters between March 2019 and March 2020. The fresh fish samples were used as identification species by morphological characters with specimen vouchers.
|Study Extent||All of the Johnius samples included in the dataset were obtained and derived either by gill nets, trawling, or from fish markets on the central western coast of Taiwan.|
|Quality Control||All the scientific names of fish samples were validated by the updated fish checklist in the Taiwan Fish Database before being added to the database. Afterwards, the data were validated again by matching them against FishBase, Catalog of Fishes, and California Academy of Sciences, as well as referring to Chao et al. (2019) and Hanafi et al. (2023) for further verification. The latitude and longitude of trawling routes were plotted on Google Maps, and outliers were shown in occurrences datasets in GBIF.|
Method step description:
- Data collection. The integration of Johnius distributional data started in 2009 to 2010 in Changhwa county, while data from 2012 to 2016 were acquired from the master’s dissertation of Liou (2016). Data from both were collected seasonally by trawling method. Meanwhile, from March 2019 to March 2020, the samples collected in Miaoli were collected monthly by either trawling in the coastal waters of Taiwan or from fish markets. A total of 2,589 Johnius samples were used to investigate their spatial distribution in Taiwanese waters. After the sample collections had been sorted, all the specimens were identified to the species level (Chao et al. 2019, Hanafi et al. 2023) and their length (in mm) and weight (in g) were measured.
- Open data preparation: We converted the occurrence data into Darwin Core Archive standard in Google Sheets, an online spreadsheet tool, using the Darwin Core Archive Assistant Add-on (Salim and Saraiva 2020). The data were then made available on the IPT TaiBIF and GBIF for the public to access.
- Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker, 1855) in GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2023-02-08.
- Johnius belangerii (Cuvier, 1830) in GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2023-02-08.
- Johnius borneensis (Bleeker, 1851) in GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2023-02-08.
- Johnius distinctus (Tanaka, 1916) in GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2023-02-08.
- Johnius taiwanensis Chao, Chang, Chen, Guo, Lin, Liou, Shen & Liu, 2019 in GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2023-02-08.
- Johnius trewavasae Sasaki, 1992 in GBIF Secretariat (2022). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2023-02-08.
- Shao, K. T., Lin, J., Wu, C. H., Yeh, H. M., & Cheng, T. Y. (2012). A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan. ZooKeys, (198), 103. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.198.3032
- Liou, Y. Y. (2016). Taxonomic revision of Taiwan Sciaenidae with a note on seasonal variation along Yun-Lin coast (Master dissertation, NSYSU).
- Chao, N. L., Chang, C. W., Chen, M. H., Guo, C. C., Lin, B. A., Liou, Y. Y., Shen, K.N., & Liu, M. (2019). Johnius taiwanensis, a new species of Sciaenidae from the Taiwan Strait, with a key to Johnius species from Chinese waters. Zootaxa, 4651(2), 259-270. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4651.2.3
- Hanafi, N., Chen, M. H., Seah, Y. G., Chang, C. W., Liu, S. Y. V., Lai, C. C., & Chao, N. L. (2023). Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Croaker Johnius (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in Taiwanese Waters. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 11(3), 471. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030471
- Salim, J.A., Saraiva, A.M. (2020) A Google Sheet Add-on for Biodiversity Data Standardization and Sharing. Biodiversity Information Science and Standards. 4:e59228.
- Lal Mohan RS (1975) Two new species of Sciaenid fishes Johnius elongatus and Johnieops macrorhynus from India. Matsya 1: 19‑25.
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- Lo P, Liu S, Chao NL, Nunoo FE, Mok H, Chen W, et al. (2015) A multi-gene dataset reveals a tropical New World origin and Early Miocene diversification of croakers (Perciformes: Sciaenidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 88: 132‑143. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.025
- Lo P, Liu S, Nor SAM, Chen W, et al. (2017) Molecular exploration of hidden diversity in the Indo-West Pacific sciaenid clade. PLOS ONE 12 (4). https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0176623
- Mok HK, Yu HY, Ueng JP, Wei RC, et al. (2009) Characterization of sounds of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and localization of its spawning sites in estuarine coastal waters of Taiwan. Zool. Stud 48 (3): 325‑333.
- Trewavas E (1977) The sciaenid fishes (croakers or drums) of the Indo-West-Pacific. Trans. Zool. Soc. London 33: 253‑541. https://doi.org/10.1111/j. 1096-3642.1977.tb00052.x
- Zhang L, Liu M, Fang L, Xu Q, Lin J, et al. (2019) Reproductive Biology of Johnius taiwanensis (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) in Fujian Waters, Southern China. Zoological studies 58: e38. https://doi.org/10.6620/ZS.2019.58-38